"There is still that within us which looks to the past and imagines that all of the old stories and legends "ARE" true."


Over the last 7 years I have been reconstructing/interpreting anomalous beings from the forgotten past here in North America.

Created with an instinctual intuitive approach, along with actual physical measurements and old photographs.


Independent researchers and Native American oral tradition has aided the creative process.

The Adena Reconstructions

In May of 2015, the authors undertook a joint venture with artist Marcia K. Moore to recreate the living images of Adena and Hopewell people. Marcia utilizes 3D digital sculpture interpretations to reconstruct the likeness of ancient peoples, all based upon their tangible remains, such as skulls and skeletons. Her work has appeared in several books and has been featured on the History Channel’s Ancient Aliens TV series.


The dimensions of the Adena giant were based upon details from several sources, including the record in the Norris Manuscript and the 12th Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology of the Smithsonian of an Adena male skeleton measuring just over 7.5 feet in length, excavated in 1883 from the Great Smith Mound in Charleston, West Virginia.  These measurements were cross-referenced with several other reports mentioned throughout this book of skeletons reaching between 7.5 and 8 feet in length. The build of the Adena recreations utilize details that were recorded by archaeologists William S. Webb and Don W. Dragoo, for skeletons excavated from Adena mounds in Kentucky and West Virginia in the 1950s. The pronounced musculature and rugged features of the recreations are based upon the writings of these authorities. 


The skull used for all of the male Adena recreations was that of Burial 16 from the Wright Mounds in Montgomery County, Kentucky, photographed in Figure 25 of Webb and Snow’s The Adena People No.1. This skull exhibited “pronounced” artificial cranial deformation of the type typically practiced by Adena people. Anthropologist H.T.E. Hertzberg considered the Wright Mound crania to be exemplary of the congenital traits of Adena people, including large mandibles and high vaulted (brachycephalic) skulls. The skull of burial 16 was of a 26-year-old male with a cranial index of 92 and a large face. There are much larger examples from Adena tombs, including a male from the Cowen Creek Mound in Ohio with an index of 100, but the Wright skull was chosen for the recreations to present an example that would have been more common in the Adena population. According to William S. Webb in The Wright Mounds, sites 6 and 7, Montgomery County, Kentucky (University of Kentucky Press, 1940), Wright Burial 16 was found extended in a log tomb measuring 5 x 7 feet, which had been completely filled with clay. No artifacts were found with the body. 


For the Adena female recreation, the skull of Burial 13 from the Wright site was selected, since William S. Webb and Charles Snow considered this specimen to be the best preserved Adena female from Kentucky and a perfect example of the physical type. Burial 13 was a young Adena female with a cranial index of 90.5, featuring sub-medium artificial deformation. The female also featured the socket for one supernumerary tooth near the upper left third molar. Wright Burial 13 was found in a log tomb built into a pit dug to 5.5 feet in depth into the east side of the mound. At the bottom of the pit the burial had been placed in a log box made up of two long logs on each side and one short log at each end. Logs also lined the walls of the sloping sides of the pit. Post molds in the tomb suggested that the structure had roof supports. Two large deposits of red ocher were found at the feet of the skeleton. 


 The head and facial features of the Hopewell recreation were based upon several Hopewell skulls also reproduced in Webb and Snow’s Adena People No. 1. As explained in Chapter 13, large skeletons ranging between 7-8 feet in height have also been discovered in Hopewell mounds in several U.S. States. The Hopewell wears Marcia K. Moore’s rendering of the bear costume of the “Shaman of Newark”, represented by the famous Wray figurine found with a burial from the Cherry Valley Mounds at Newark, Ohio. 

Marcia K. Moore has done a great service to researchers by providing visuals for the powerfully built, exceptionally tall members of these prehistoric populations, based on actual skeletal remains. 

Jason Jarrell and Sarah Farmer